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40 Years: In 2024 Rubber Consultants Celebrate 40 Years


TEM is used on ultrathin sections of bulk structure in cross-section to view the inner structure and morphology of a specimen including materials such as gloves, latex films and elastomer composites. 

An electron beam is passed through ultrathin section of a specimen, electron dense material absorbs the electron beam appearing darker and thus producing an image. 

Samples for TEM may require treatments such as use of high atomic number stain (osmium tetroxide, uranyl acetate or ruthenium tetroxide) in order to enhance contrast and visualise the polymer bundles, or bromination to case-harden latex particles or swelling in styrene and polymerising to separate out components within the sample.  

Rubber Consultants have used TEM to investigate blends, sections of swollen networks, thin films, replicas, particles and worn surfaces of rubber composites (such as tyre treads). 

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  • Imaging ultra-thin sections of elastomer samples
  • Imaging latex particles in latex films
  • Imaging particles such as carbon black, carbon nanotubes or silica
  • Obtaining micrographs of swollen polymer networks
  • Imaging phase morphology of rubber blends
  • Determine filler location in polymer blends
Pamela Martin

Our Expert

Dr Pamela Martin

Email: PMartin@tarrc.co.uk or info@rubberconsultants.com